How your favourite wine is made?

The production of wine is an incredibly fine balance of fruit and time and expertise. Keep reading to know how Reds, Whites and Sweet Dessert Wines are produced.

Red Wine

The first operation performed on grapes after they are removed from their storage is to de-stem them, which is the process of removing the grape from the shoots to which they are attached.

As soon as all the grapes in the batch are de-stemmed, they are placed into the wine press where they are compressed into a paste which in turn releases the must (the juice of the fruit). The resulting paste (or pomace) and must combination then spend time together in a cask and it is the length of time that the mixture sits with the must in contact with the grape skin and pulp that determines the character of the finished wine.

When the winemaker determines the right amount of time has passed, the juice is drawn off and yeast added to begin the fermentation process with the remaining pomace, in many cases, being returned to the vineyard to be used as a fertilizer.

Once the colour and sugar content are correct the cask valve is opened and the first juice, which is the best quality wine, is then transferred into other containers where the fermentation process is finalized.

Pressed winesí, which are full of tannin, are made from the leftover solids. They have a strong colour and are generally mixed with the first juice in many different ways to create wines of different strengths and flavours.

When the fermentation process is complete, the wine is either bottled straight away, or left to age.

White Wine

When making white wine it is important not to damage the grapes, so they are poured into the receiving bins as quickly as possible. Once they are all in the receiving bin, the grapes are then transferred to the press where the must is separated from the skins and other solids.

At this stage, the solids are disregarded and the remaining must is slightly refrigerated before being transferred into a stainless steel vat where it is allowed to ferment. Care is taken to maintain the temperature during fermenting which preserves the delicate aromas of the finished wine.

Once the fermentation process is complete, the resultant wine is decanted taking care to avoid the sediment which collects at the bottom of the vat. After decanting, the wine is bottled and ready to be sold, and is the best drunk within two years.

Sweet Dessert Wines

Dessert wines are produced in one of two ways. In the first method, Botrytis Cinera, a fungus which grows very quickly, is used. This transforms the fruit and changes the colour and also alters the acid components and sugar levels. The second method is to interrupt the fermentation process by adding alcohol. This method creates a strong, sweet wine where the grape is the major flavour.

Grapes used for sweet wines are of the white Moscatel and Garnacha varieties which, along with the production process, leave the wine with a mushroom type smell as the bottle is opened.

Scarlett Johansson on New York, Lifestyle and Woody Allen

Scarlett Johansson tells about Russia, her lifestyle and Woody Allen. Read the full interview where Scarlett makes her point on feminism and tells who she would like to be reborn in "Cosmo Life" April. Coming soon!

CL: Do you love champagne?

Johansson: I do love champagne. I have many wonderful memories connected to it. I remember when I was little, my parents let me take a sip of champagne from their glass when we were celebrating Christmas or New Year. Therefore, I associate champagne with a holiday, happy moments, achievement of some goal. All these I think are reasons for champagne.

CL: In one of the films you played a Russian girl. Why do you think you landed in this spot? What makes people see a Russian in you?

Johansson: I do not know. I have Russian roots. My relatives from my grandmother’s side come from Minsk, so my roots are there. Jon Favreau, the director of “Iron Man 2” conducting the first casting was looking for someone who could pass as a Russian face. Maybe I have some unusual independence, which is attributed to Russian women.

CL: What is the difference between this role of the Russian girl and the role of the same but American women? For you - what's the difference?

Johansson: I do not know. Perhaps there is more of a kind of European grace about Russian girl. It seems to me that she is a bit more sline and sleek, a little more elegant. And also because she has well traveled, is connected with spies and has the ability "to be double-sided“ personality.

CL: If you were offered a lot of money to live in Russia, would you agree?

Johansson: That does not sound so bad! I think many Americans would take advantage of this opportunity. I do not think it's true that I need a lot of money so that I agree to live in Russia.

CL: Would you agree to stay for free?

Johansson: You know, I'm a true new yorker, so for me, New York is vitally important. Even if it's hard time to live in New York. But I know many who moved here or have homes in Russia and they love it. I think it would be great to spend a vacation there. Why not?

CL: Spending a vacation and living constantly are two different things.

Johansson: It's true.

CL: You really can imagine yourself living, for example, in Moscow?

Johansson: I do not know. In any place, wherever you live, you should have a company of friends, it must be a feeling that somewhere around you have a family. It's difficult to just go somewhere and be disconnected. But if I have a nice group of friends, and if I'm aware of the events - what's new, where to go, what's popular — I could live in different places.

CL: What is important for you living in a big city?

Johansson: Of course, infrastructure. Also this central feeling, that everything is not too spread out. Of course, good restaurants, because I love to eat delicious food. It's important for me to be in a walking city where people go a lot, where you can meet a friend and go for a coffee. I need some kind of spontaneity in the city, where you can just walk, and then your friend calls, and you already meet in some place.

CL: Tell me honestly, do you go by taxi in New York?

Johansson: Taxi, yes.

CL: Are you really using them?

Johansson: Yes. Well, I never invite people into my car. But - yes, this is how I'm moving around in New York. Or by walking.

CL: So you can meet Scarlett Johansson in a taxi in New York?

Johansson: Yes. I use public transport. New York is a city where it is easier to move by public transport or on foot. And you know, I think in New York everybody is too cool to care of who’s walking nearby. People are too passionate about everything that happens around. So it is not difficult to remain unnoticed.

CL: Tell me about Woody Allen. He seems to be a melancholic and very funny person. Is it just an image that we see in a movie, or is he the same in life?

Johansson: I do not think Woody is so melancholy. I think that he, rather, ... I will not say that he is optimistic. He is a realist. I remember the phrase from his movie. He says: "Realism is pessimism with an alternate spelling," I think that he is actually pretty enthusiastic. He appreciates fine things in life, quiet moments. And he is quite poetic in this way. I think that his melancholy is caused by the fear of his own mortality and the fact that all this can not go on forever, and there is an ultimate end. This very idea is melancholic, I think. According to me, he is a very positive person. He enjoys things, he loves to travel, music, food, art.

CL: Usually they say that people who show a good sense of humor on stage or on the screen, in life rarely share something: jokes, stories and so on. Speaking of Woody Allen, is this true?

Johansson: I always knew that he’s shy when you meet him. But when you get to know him better, he's an excellent storyteller, very funny, so resourceful. And he always has his own opinion on any occasion, he is very categorical, he always has something to say in response to what is going on.

CL: He is more conservative, I think.

Johansson: I think that Woody is more conservative financially. He is more "overgrown" with real estate. But I will not say that he is as conservative as he looks in the film. He's pretty liberal-minded, you know — he’s from New York, a Jewish from New York.

CL: Of course, but it's bourgeois, do not you think? In a good way.

Johansson: You know, he used to have anything, and now he's incredibly successful. I think he appreciates this opportunity - come from nothing and being somebody who has a beautiful and relaxed lifestyle. But I would not say that this changed his political views that much.

CL: As for you, could you relate yourself to the bourgeoisie? Do you like bourgeois things: expensive champagne, elite restaurants, beautiful dresses? Or are these things unimportant for you?

Read the full Interview in "Cosmo Life" April Issue, coming soon!

Types of Teeth Whitening Procedures

Teeth whitening is a process of lightening or changing the color of your teeth. A few of the options are listed below in case you wish to undergo a teeth whitening procedure.

1. Teeth Whitening Toothpastes: These toothpastes help lighten the color of your teeth by about a shade or two. Such toothpastes contain chemical agents that gently polish the enamel and remove stains. These toothpastes can be purchased over-the-counter from your local drug store or they can be ordered online.

2. Teeth Whitening Strips: These are thin invisible strips that are covered with a teeth whitening gel. Use strips for about a fortnight and you will be able to see the difference that these peroxide-based strips make on the color of your teeth. The results should last approximately for four months or so and it will set you back by more than $10 and less than $60.

3. Teeth Whitening Gels: Apply these gels with a brush directly to your teeth twice daily for about a fortnight. The effects of these clear peroxide-based gels last for about 4 odd months and it might cost you about $15 - $20.

4. Teeth Whitening by a Dentist: Dentists use different types of tray-based procedures in which they apply a light to the gel on your teeth. This improves the teeth color between three and eight shades. This approach is the most effective out of the approaches listed above. This also removes stubborn stains deep in the tooth and can cost almost $800.

Simple Tricks How to Make Yourself Look Younger

For many people growing old is a hard fact to deal with. Many people consider aging a dreadful experience. When many people think of aging, they think of the deterioration of their appearance where as the options of remaining youthful is more appealing since we tend to feel better about ourselves in our youth. There are simple methods to take years off your appearance to help retain the youthful appearance without the need of painful plastic surgery or the needles used in many procedures. 

You have gray hair. It isn’t necessarily a bad thing at all but the hair styles can add years to your appearance. To disguise the wrinkles on your forehead, wear bangs to hide them. The current hair styles today incorporate many ways of wearing bangs giving you increased options for the new style. You can wear the bangs straight or have them lightly sweep over your forehead.

Soften your jaw line with a layered hair style cut to the neck area to draw the focus away from this area. Add shorter layers on the top of the head to add volume and take more focus off the jaw line and sagging areas. If you have crow’s feet around your eyes, style your hair around your eyes to help hide the lines. If you wear your hair long, have it layered to refresh your appearance and give yourself a natural facelift.

To hide the gray hairs, instead of coloring the entire hair, opt for highlights to enhance your natural color. The new added colors will give a youthful appearance. If you want to color your hair, avoid selecting a color too dark for your complexion since it will make you look older instead of younger.

To use makeup to change the appearance of your eyes, reshape your eyebrows.  If you have thinning eyebrows, use a cosmetic pencil to fill in the sparse areas with a brow powder to fix the pencil on the eyebrow area.

Apply concealer to remove the dark patches and age spots. Use a creamy color that contains peach or yellow undertone to remove the bluish cast under your eyes. Avoid concealers that are lighter than your skin tone.Apply a slight amount of foundation with a powder to seal the concealer. Avoid using too much powder or you will create lines and highlight the flaws in your skin tone. Use a cream blush instead of a powder blush. Using a powder blush will draw attention to the lines in your face. 

Use a lighter lip color. Darker colors will make your features appear harsh and accentuates the imperfections in your skin. Make your lips fuller add a touch of lip gloss to the bottom lip.

Apply a moisturizer to your face to keep your skin looking fresh and hydrated. If you use foundation, use a moisture rich mixture. Avoid using too much foundation as it will form in the lines of your face making you appear older as well as showing the fine lines on your face.

7 Important Steps Of The Christian Wedding Ceremony

The Christian wedding ceremony is an important ceremony for those who celebrate this religion. The ceremony is filled with multiple steps that are an important for the religion and for the couple involved. Those who do not follow the Christian faith may be a little confused by the entire ceremony. If you are going to attend a Christian wedding, you will want to know what you should expect. These are seven of the most important steps of the wedding for this religion.

 Important Family Members are Seated

 The first part of the actual processional includes the important family members of those who are to be married. This includes the parents and grandparents of both the bride and groom. It may include aunts and uncles who have been an important part of the lives of the bride and groom as well.

 The Processional

 The processional is the most well known part of the Christian wedding. The processional introduces the wedding part and eventually introduces the bride and groom to the wedding ceremony.

 The Prayer

Most Christian weddings will have a prayer directly following the processional. This prayer will change based on the wishes of the bride and groom, and the priest that is performing the ceremony. Those who are uncomfortable with prayer from other religions should know that the prayer will be said out loud to the entire group.

The Pledge and the Wedding Vows

The bride and groom will then pledge to the congregation that they are willfully going through the wedding ceremony. They will then exchange wedding vows. While some will choose to stick with the usual wedding vows, others will write their own vows. They may do this with the usual vows, or in place of the usual vows.

Ring Exchange

The couple will then go through the usual ring exchange of the wedding. Some couples will choose to say their own vows during this time instead of replacing the usual wedding vows.

Unity Candle

The Unity Candle is not always a part of the Christian wedding. Some couples will choose to light a candle together before their wedding ceremony has finished. This is a symbolic tradition that shows the unity of the couple as they start their journey together.

Prayer and Presentation

The priest will then say a final prayer to bless the new couple. The groom will then be told that he can kiss his bride. The couple is presented as a couple for the first time, and will then exit the church.

There are multiple steps to the Christian wedding ceremony. While some steps are staples in every ceremony, others may change depending on the wedding. There will be different rituals and traditions that some may use during their weddings. With that being said, these steps will give you a good idea as to what to expect when you attend this wedding.


How to Find the Best Weight Loss Program for You

Are you looking to lose weight?  If you are, you may be interested in joining a weight loss program.  When it comes to joining a weight loss program, you will find that you have a number of different options.  If this is your first time joining a weight loss program, you may be unsure as to what you should look for in a weight loss program.  If that is the case, you will want to continue reading on.


One of the best ways to go about finding the perfect weight loss program for yourself is to ask yourself a number of important questions.  One of the first questions that you should ask yourself is how much time you have to devote to weight loss meetings.  If you were to join a local weight loss program, you would likely be required to attend weekly meeting.  Whether you are busy with your family or busy at work, you may not have the time to do so.  In that case, you should look into joining an online weight loss program, as they are often designed for those with busy schedules.


Another question that you will want to ask yourself, when looking to find the perfect weight loss program is your willpower.  Should you join an online weight loss program, you will be given more freedom, as you do not have to physically report to meetings and answer to group leaders. While this freedom is nice, it has allowed many hopeful individuals to go off track.  If you do not think that you can stick with your online weight loss program goals and instructions, it may be better to join a local weight loss program instead.


Another one of the many questions that you will want to ask yourself, when looking for a weight loss program to join, is how much money you have to spend.  While it is possible to find free weight loss programs, both locally or online, it is actually quite rare.  In your search for weight loss programs, you will find that they have a wide range of membership fees.  Commonly, you will find that online weight loss programs are cheaper than locally operated weight loss programs.  If you are on a budget, the cost of each weight loss program that you come across should play a large role in your decision.


You should also ask yourself if you are embarrassed with your current weight or your physical appearance. Although you should have nothing to be ashamed of, you may still feel that way.  If that is the case, you may be afraid of attending local weight loss meetings.  Of course, you need to remember that everyone else in your meetings is likely feeling the same way, but you don’t have to put yourself in an awkward situation.  If you are concerned with your appearance or what others may think of you, you may want to look into joining an online weight loss program instead.


The above mentioned questions are just a few of the many that you should ask yourself if you are interested in joining a weight loss program. While there are a number of benefits to joining a locally operated weight loss program, as well as an online weight loss program, you need to make the decision that is best for you and your own needs.

7 Tips To Help You Select Your Custom Car Cover!


Finding the right car cover for your vehicle is essential if you want to protect it from moisture, pollution, bird excrement, even small dings. Not all car covers are the same and few can offer total protection for your car. Read on to learn about the car cover that is right for your car.


You lovingly wash and wax your vehicle on most sunny weekends, spending time detailing every single blotch, nick, scrape, or another damaging mark on your car's exterior. Part of the deal with owning any vehicle is making certain that it looks its best week in and week out. Still, you may not be doing all that you can to protect the finish. Other enemies including bird excrement, acid rain, and even harmful UV rays can thwart the best efforts of even the most diligent car owner. Fortunately, there is one automotive accessory that can help keep your car clean, provided you use it when your car is parked for an extended length of time. What am I talking about? Car covers! Read on for seven helpful tips to help you choose the right cover for your truck, van, SUV, or car.


When shopping for a custom car cover you must give consideration to what it does besides simply covering your car. Among some important points to know:


Will the car cover protect from damaging UV rays? If you live in an area of intense sunshine, such as Arizona, you need a car cover that offers the maximum protection from the sun.


Is the material durable? Does it breathe? Will it tear if loaded down with snow or ice?


Will the car cover resist or completely repel rain?


Can the product survive weather extremes, i.e. intense heat or severe cold?


Will the car cover resist dust? Some car covers prevent even the finest dust from accumulating, dust that can mar your garaged car too.


Does the car cover come with multiple layers to protect from small insults? This is an important feature to have if you leave your car in a public area. In addition, selecting a car cover that comes with side mirror pockets is a wise choice to ensure that your car receives the snuggest fit.


Finally, you will want to know if there is a lengthy guarantee offered, what colors are available, and what the return policies are, if any, of the cover that you select.


Most premium car covers allow you for them to be cleaned right in your washing machine. By selecting cold to warm water, regular bleach-free laundry detergent, and drying it on your dryer's permanent press cycle, you can make the dirtiest car cover clean in no time. Of course, make certain that you adhere to the manufacturer's specifications for the proper care of your car cover.